Monday, October 29, 2012

Rakhine Buddhists are terrorists

How do you feel when you see Buddhist monks marching through the streets to encourage for the terror?

Thousands of Myanmar monks demonstrated to support the government's brutal persecution of stateless Muslim Rohingya, why?

The Buddhist world is full of injustice. Buddhistmonks support prejudice and human cruelty, why?

Empathy and non-exploitation are the key words in Buddhism but Buddhist monks encourage Buddhist to kill non-Buddhists, to burn all non-Buddhist houses and loot all their properties, why?

Buddhism is a religion of peace but Buddhist monks and most of the Buddhists are  terrorists, why? Buddhism encourages justice for all people, but Buddhists practice injustice and terrorist act against humanity, why?

Buddhists are trying to implement Buddhism-for-national-religion and annihilate Christians and Muslims from Myanmar land, thousands of Buddhist have been living and working in other countries, look how selfish idea !

Buddhists’ mindset is racism not Buddhism in Myanmar, why?

Buddhists’ thoughts, words, and actions are based on terrorism, race-based nationalism, and extremism, why?

 Because 70 to 80 percent of monks in Myanmar are Rakhine, and their main target is to build an independent non-Muslim Arakan State, most of the Rakhine monks are not Myanmar nationals, they are from Bangladesh; there were more than 3 million Rakhine Buddhists in  East Pakistan(Bangladesh) before Myanmar’s independence but now, less than one million left, the rest entered  Rakhine State, the most easiest hiding place for a criminal in Myanmar is Buddhist monastery,  so Rakhine from Bangladesh entered Myanmar and became monks, they stay in the monastery till certain time and later gave up acting as a monk, most of them remained as monks and spread the whole Myanmar. In this way, most of the monks in Myanmar are Rakhine Buddhists, they don’t care their religion, their main target is to establish an independenceRakhine non-Muslim Rakhine State.

Rakhine Buddhists do not want to have human rights or true democracy in Myanmar. For the last fifty years, people of Myanmar have been waiting to have a taste of democracy, human rights, freedom, justice, or equality. Some people have not known any of these things during their entire lives. This means we were so thirsty for human rights that we sometimes demanded them like fools.

But Rakhine Buddhists and Rakhine monks do not want democracy in Myanmar, they do not want human right here, they want only an independence Rakhine state.

In this 21st century ,a time of globalization, the principles of human rights and democracy are terribly broken in Myanmar. Buddhist understandings of Dhamma, Metta, peace, and human rights are very rough because of Rakhine monks. Rakhine monks in the whole of Myanmar encourage people hatred, racism, intolerance.

The violence between Rakhines and Rohingyas in Arakan State is an example of how dictatorships all over the world use and rely on conflicts to stay in power. If all people were united, a military dictatorship could not survive. Division and enmity in the minds of the people only keep the military strong. Because of this, the military systematically uses divide and rule policy on the grounds of nationality, religion, economic and education status, etc.

Rakhine Buddhists do not want democracy in Myanmar, they call Rakhine their father land unlike other races of Myanmar, all Myanmar nationals say Myanmar is our mother land but Rakhine Buddhists call Rakhine State father land, they are proud of being Rakhita which mean cannibals of Ancient , most of them don’t know kindness, humanity or peace even they hold a Ph.D degree like Dr. Aye Chan who claimed that Rohingya are viruses. Rakhine educated criminals and uneducated criminal have a plan to destroy Bamar too, they use the word  Aukchi , lowest filth for Bamar, Kalar and Bangali for Muslims, according to them , all the Muslims in the world are Bangalikalar because they themselves came from Bangladesh.

Because of Rakhine Buddhists, people all over the world ask questions against Buddhism, Rakhine Buddhists are insulting Buddhism ,because of them people look downBuddhism and Buddhist people. We should check all monasteries of Myanmar and find out all Rakhine monks in order to save Buddhism and Buddhists’ dignity. 

All of the Rakhine Buddhist monasteries keep swords, rods, and other lethal weapons in order to make mischief in the society, we should check up all the Rakhine Buddhist monasteries and remove those for the sake of humanity.

Rakhine claim themselves that they are Arayan like German Aryan and only race in Myanmar who love their own race much more other race of the world. In this way, Rakhine Buddhists insult Buddhism and Buddhists world.

Rakhine Buddhists are real terrorists who had already killed more than 60,000 Rohingya using violence, more than another 50000 in prisons and police custody, make more than 2.5 million stateless, where has gone human right in the world? Where is US’s “War on Terror” ? Does US practice double standard policy ? If not ,why can’t US fight these terrorists?

Zaw Lwin Oo

Friday, October 26, 2012

Rakhines were not indigenous race of Myanmar before 1970

If we analyze history of Arakan , we cannot find the word “Rakhine” before 1970s. The word, “Rakhine” was fabricated in 1970s to get promotion of State authority. The only word used for Arkanese Buddhist was Mug. So Rakhine were not indigenous race in Burma before 1970s. Rakhine fabricated  thousands of histories ,again they failed to prove Rakhine’s authenticity, now they are calling themselves Arakan which is neither Rakhine’s word nor Bamar’s word, it is a Persian or Urdu word. 

For Rohingya’s authenticity see

An 1826 British government document on the cultures and inhabitants of Burma, today known as Myanmar, settles any lingering arguments over whether Muslims have lived here for hundreds of years.Secret and Political Department, Fort William, the material begins with:
I, having made a tour through the province of Arracan, and its dependencies Ramree, Cheduba and Sandoway and having inspected the localities of the frontier and debouchments of the mountain passes, I am not enable with the aid of information collected from various sources, respectfully to submit for the consideration of the Right Honorable, the Governor General in council, a short report of the character of the country, history, population, productions and manners and customs of the inhabitants.
The confident author of the report states...
The extent of the Population has been tolerably well ascertained, proved a census taken by Mr. Robertson, and myself, and may be considered as approximating very nearly to the truth.

With plenty of references for their work, the authors note many details about the state of Burma in 1826 and they were given the country full accepted history up to that point in time and it is an incredible look back into time. 

If we analyze that report, we will find that 53.3% of Mug headmen were from Ramoo of Bangladesh; among 30 Mug headmen, 15 are from Ramoo of Bangladesh, 1 from Cheduba of Bangladesh, 3 re-migrated from Bagladesh. There were 11 Muslim headmen, only one person was mentioned re-migrate; Ameer  Allee, a remigrant Mussulman  from  Cox's  Bazar where he was from  some  time employed  in the subsidiary  Police establishment.  It means Muslims did not come from Bangladesh. 

There are many words in daily life usages which are neither Rakhine’s words nor Bamar words, those are specifically related Muslim only such as para, sardar, raja, zumeendar, jageedar, nazir, mahilla, arries, seer, tayngs, rutalu, maund etc.

Rakhine and Myanmar Government have been publishing bias history, false and baseless history against Rohingya. They claimed that the word “Rohingya” was used first time after independence of Burma in 1948 . According to authentic historical documents, it was used widely in 17 century.

SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003, ISSN 1479-8484
Early Article Reprint 1

Francis Buchanan published his  "A  Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire" in 1799, in the fifth volume of Asiatic Researches" This piece provides one of the first major Western surveys of the languages of Burma. But the article goes beyond this and provides important data on the ethno-cultural identities and identifications of the various population groups in the first half of Bo-daw-paya's reign (1782-1819), For these reasons, the article is republished here.

The article is reproduced in its entirety, with slight modifications as follows. The letter "J" used for the contemporary usage (thus, "Chinese"). "s"  in such words as "Chineje" follows contemporary. At several points in the article, the original publisher did not include all the necessary characters (and sometimes lopped off the ends of sentences)" ln such cases, the lost letter or likely word has been included within brackets. Split words, using a dash at the end of a sentence have been reunified (hence, "woman", is now "woman"). Finally, the article has been repaginated to fit within the overall scheme of this issue of the SBBR. Beyond these points, no changes have been made and all footnotes are derived from the original article.

The original citation for the article is as follows:

Francis Buchanan, "A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire." Asiatic Researches 5 (1799): 219-240.

A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the
Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire
Francis Buchanan, M. D.

TO judge from external appearance, that is to say, from shape, size, and feature, there is one very extensive nation that inhabits the east ol includes the Eastern and Western Tartars of the Chinese authors, the Calmucs the Chinese, the Japponese, the Malays and other tribes inhabiting what is called the Peninsula of lndia beyond the Ganges: and the islands to the south and east of this, as far at least as Neuz Guinea. This, however, is speaking in a very general sense, and many foreign races being intermixed with the nation, and, perhaps, many tribes belonging to it, being featured beyond the limits I have mentioned.


The people called by us Burmas, Barmas, Vermas, Brimmas, &c. stile themselves Myammaw. By people of Pegu, they are named Pummay  ; by Karaya, Yoo; by the people of Cussay, Awa, by the Cussay Shau, Kammau ; by the Chinese ofYounan,Laumeen ; and by theAykobat, Anwa. They esteemthemselves to bedescendedfromthepeopleolArakan, whom they often callMyanmmawgyee that is to say, great Burmas.

The proper natives oI Arakan call themselves Yakain, which name is also commonly given to them by the Burmas. By the people of Pegu, they are named Takain. By the Bengal Hindus, at least by such of them as have been settled in Arakan, the country is called Rossaum, from whence, I suppose, Mr. Rennell has been induced to make a country named Roshaum occupy part of his map, not conceiving that it would be Arakan, or the kingdom of the Mugs, as we often call it. Whence this name of Mug, given by the Europeans to the natives ol Arakan, has been derived, I know not;but, as far as lcould learn, it is totally unknown to the natives and their neighbors, except such of them as, by their intercourse with us, have learned its use. The Mahommedans settled al Arakan, call the country Rovingaw; the Persians call it Rekan.

The third dialect of the Burma language is spoken by a small tribe called Yo. There are four governments  of this nation, situated on the east side of the Arakan mountains, governed by chiefs of their own, but tributary to the Burmas.

The fourth dialect is that of what we call the coast of Tanessarim, from its city now in ruins, whose proper name was Tanayntharee. These people, commonly called by the Burmas, Dawayza and Byeitza, from the two governments of which their country consists, have most frequently been subjected to Siam  but at present they are subjects of the Burma  [kingdom]

Although the dialects of these people, to one another, appear very distinct, yet the difference consists chiefly in such minute variations of accent as not to be observable by a stranger. In the same manner as an Englishman, at first, is seldom able to distinguish even the Aberdeen accent from that of the other shires of Scotland, which to a Scotchman appears to be different; so, in most cases, I could perceive no difference in the words of these four languages, although among the Burmas, any of the provincials, speaking generally, produced laughter, and often appeared to be with difficulty understood. I shall, therefore, only give a list of the Burma words of the other dialects are the same,where difference is not mentioned.


These six areall thelanguages Burma Empire of this great eastern of which I stay in the Burma Empire. I was able to procure"evocable sufficient for my purpose. Although they appear very different at first sight, and the language of one race is totally unintelligible to the others, yet I can perceive in them all some coincidences; and the knowledge of the languages, with their obsolete words, their phrases, their inflection of words, and elision, euphoria cause,could perhaps, show many more. Those that have the greatest affinity are in tab I, IV and V Mr. GILCRIST whose knowledge of common dialect in use on the bank of Ganges is I believe exceeded by that of no European, was so obliging as to look over these vocabularies; but he could not trace the smallest relation between the languages.

I shall now add three dialects,spoken in the Burma Empire, but evidently derive from the language of the Hindu nation.

The first is that spoken by the Mohammedans, who have long settled in Arakan, and who call themselves Rooinga, or natives of Arakan.

The second dialect is, that spoken by the Hindus of Arakan. I procured  it from a Brahmen and his attendants, who had been brought to Amarapura by the king’s eldest son on his return from the conquest of Arakan. They called themselves Rossawn and for what reason to persuade met hat theirs was a common language of  Arakan. Boththese tribes, by the real natives of Arakan,  are called Kulaw Yakain or stranger Arakan.

The last dialect of Hindustanee which I shall mention, is that of a people call by Burmas, Aykobat, many of them are slaves at Amarapura. By one of them I was informed, that they had called themselves Banga; that formerly they had kings of their own; but that, in his father’s time, their kingdom had been overturned by the king of Munnypura, who carried away a great part of the inhabitants to his residence.

When that was taken last by the Buermas, which was about fifteen years ago, this man was one of the many captives who were brought to Ava. He said also, that Banga was seven days’ journey south-west from Munnypura; it must, therefore, be on the frontiers of Bengal, and may, perhaps, be the country called in our maps Cashar.

Mr. GILCHRIST has been so good as to examine particularly these two dialects, and to mark thus ( * ) those words which come nearest the Hindustanee spoken on the Ganges; and thus (ţ) those not so evidently connection with the same, but which show resemblance by analogy.

* Sooja
* Nokyoto
* Tara
* Matee
* Dsol
* Pannae
* Aaganee
* Sheel
* Heel

George Swinton  Esquire
Secretary to Government  in the Secret and  Political  Department
Fort William
1st.Havingmadeatourthrough  theprovinceofArracan,anditsdependenciesRamree,Cheduba, and Sandoway  and  having  inspected the localities  of the frontier  and debouchments  of the mountain passes, I am  now enable  with the aid of information collected from various sources,  respectfully to submit for the consideration  of the Right Honorable  the Governor General  in council, a short  report ofthecharacterofthecountry,history,population,productionsandthemanners  andcustoms of the inhabitants.-

2nd. The difficulties  experienced in gaining  correct  information in a country  with  the language  of which the inquirer  is not thoroughly acquaint  render it perplexing,  and  often  doubtful.  I have however taken care,  to state, nothing  without being  myself  satisfied  of its correctness,  either  from ocular observation, or the best  proof  that existing circumstances  could produce.-

3rd. The History  of the early ages  is merely to a traditional  and fabulous, and  has  been  collected  partly from manuscripts  of Mr. Robertsons;  the letter part, including Kyng  Berring  invasion  down to the  conquestof Arracan bythe British  Government,  may  be considered authentic  is having  been extracted  partly from  Mugh  manuscripts and from  the oral  communications  of many  individuals in whose  times the events  took  place and who were  eye  witnesses  of the scene.

4th . The character of the country has been attained from ocular observation and from the kind communication  of my friends  Lieutenants  Thomerson and Cammilin  of the engineers,  its extent however is roughly computed,  no survey  having yet been  made  of it—

5th.  The extent  of the Population  has  been tolerably  well ascertained, proved a census  taken  by Mr.Robertson,  and  myself,  and  may  beconsidered  as approximating  very nearly  to the truth.

6th.Aknowledge  of the productions  of the country,  and of the manners  and customs  of the people has been acquired  from observation  and from the communications  of the most intelligent men in these Provinces.

7th. Having   submitted  the above  explanations, and trusting  to the indulgent  consideration  of government,  I shall without  further  preface,  respectfully and  in as concise  a manner as  possible  lay the result of my enquiries  before this  Lordship.

The province  of Arracan and  its dependencies  Ramree, Cheduba,&  Sandoway  lie between  18&21 degrees of north Latitudes  and may be averaged  at about 60 miles  in breath  bounded on the East and South  by the Yoomadong  Mountains,  on the west by the bay of Bangal,  and  on the north by the Naaf,  and the mountains  of Mybe at the source  of the Mrosoy, covering  an extent  of about  11,000 square  miles, of which  there are  not at present more  than 400  in a state of cultivation.  The  greater part of the country  from the bottom of the mountainsdown  to the sea is asunder  bun  and the only possible way  of communicating  with the different  villages  is by water.

The province  of Arracan exclusive  of the capital includes  55 village Divisions  or Districts,  each  District or Division  containing  according  to its size  from2 to 60 Paras, or small villages,  each division is placed  underthe  controlof  a Sirdar  (Division  Head)who  is held responsible  for the good  conduct of the Paradas  of his division, who  are  generally appointed  by the suffrage  of the villages. 
The  Town of Arracan  was divided  by the Burmese  into  eight wards  according  with the number  of outlets  from the fortifications, each ward had  its own police,  but all were  placed  under  the Moosoogree  and Acherong  of the city, who received  the daily reports of any complaint  was preferred  not cognizable by them  it—was referred to the judicial  court,  consisting  of the Akonwan (collector  of land revenue) Akonwon(Collector  of port  customs),two  Cheekaydos  (law officers) and two Nakhandos  (royal reporters).  lf the case could not be settled  bythem,  an  appeal was  made  to the Rajah  whose decision  was final  in all cases,  not affecting  the officers of the state, or Kheonks of village Divisions, who  had  the privilege of appealing  to the Shaway hlwoldo  or court  of the king  in council.

ln capital  offences  the friends  of the criminal,  if able to pay a handsome  sum of money,  scarcely ever failed to effect the release of the culprit,  and often even;  at the place of execution.  ln many  cases Plaintiff and  Defendant were  both  made  to pay  fees and costs of which the officers  of the police  had their share, and  in consequences  the utmost  vigilance  and efficiency were  kept up, rendering  it almost impossible  for crime to be committed without  the knowledge of the civil  officers of the state.

The province  of Ramree  includingAmherst  islands is divided  into 25 village Divisions,  the province  ofSandaway contains 17 village divisions,  the island of Cheduba  has always  been  considered as one district  and contains 10 paras,  the provinces  of Ramree,  Sandaway and  Cheduba  had each a Deputy Governor but allwere  subordinate  to the Rajah  of Arracan,  whose  situation  was the  best  in the gift of the king of Ava, and  always  bestowed  upon  some  relation,  or as a reward for eminent  services rendered to the state  by the individual  invested  with that high  honor, who  was only required  to remit  a portion  of the revenue  to Ava  for the support  of the white elephant,  never  exceeding  120 Bisswas  of silverequalto about  l.R. 18,663...... the remainder  become  his  sole  perquisite.

The governor and deputy governors were Benerally relieved every third or fourth year, when their successors  arrived,  the Kheonks  or Head men  of village  divisions  were summoned to the seat of government,when  a heavy fee was exacted  for—confirming  them in all their former rights and  privileges.

According  to the chronology  of the Mughs,  the present  year  of our  Lord  1826 corresponds  with  1188 of their Era,  which was established  in honor  of Goadmah,  who introduced  the worship  of Boodhism into these regions  during the reign  of Chainda Soorea Gota and  built  the famous  Temple of Mahamooneechuck,  when the religion of Boodhas  had been universally  adopted.  Goadmah  told the King that he  intended  visiting  other nations of the earth for the purpose  of propagating the true religion, and solicited  his permission  to depart, which was granted  on his  allowing  the King to take a caste of his figure  in mixed Metals;  all the cunning  artificers  in the Kingdom  having  been  convened, the work was commenced on a Wednesday  morning  and on the following Friday the Caste  was complete, when Goadmah disappeared  and the image was set  up in his  stead.  The  image  is stated  to be composed  of equal parts,Gold,  Silver, Copper,  Brass, Lead, Tin,  iron, Steel and butenagua and of the following  dimensions

4Pedestal  of thesame metals  as the image, 4 cubits broad.
Figure  in a sitting  posture  8 cubits high. -Chanda  Sorea  Gota the first Rajah  on record after  a long and  happy  reign  died in the 63'd  year  of the Mug Era.
His  successors  were Soorea  Kadow.
Who died  in the Mug Era  ………………………………………….117
Maha  lyng  …………………………………………………………………154
Soorea Chanda 1st……………………………………………………… 226
Maila  Tya Chanda  ……………………………………………………..268
Buba  Chanda  ……………………………………………………………..288
Kala Chanda  ………………………………………………………………..317
Thula  Chanda 1st………………………………………………………… 346
Soorea Chanda 2nd………………………………………………………  368
Sikkee  Koja  to Chanda  ……………………………………………….384

And was succeeded by Thala  Chanda 2nd who  being  a great –favorite  of the gods they  sent him an  enchanted spear,  Dhaw  and  Magic  ring from the invisible world; in the year  387,  he  went on an  expedition  against chinas leaving  the magic  ring  with  his wife as a safe  guard  to her virtue,  and  charm  against  the influence of evil eyes with this  injunction  that in the event of his not returning,  she should raise  that person  to the throne,  whose  forefinger  the ring would fit, knowing it would  accommodate  itself only  to him  who  was blessed with the favor of the Gods,  and  that  he should there by not only  secure  a good Husband for the Queen but a wise ruler for the people,  the rajah,  having  affected  the object  of his expedition  was accidentally drowned  on his way back,  the merciful  intelligence  was conveyed  to the Queen by the minister,  who  tried every artifice to ingratiate  himself  into  the queens favor, with the hope  of being  raised to the sovereignty.

The  Queen told him of the rate King's injunction  relative  to the Ring… fore-finger the ring fitted ….whether a prince  of a rajah,  and  presented the ring to him in full Darbar,  who  made  every  effort  to put it on, but in vain, it was then  tried  by the nobles  who  all suffered a similar  mortification,  at length  the story of the ring  having spread  far and  wide, two  brothers  by name  Nura Ta and Nura  Ko  on the Jhoom caste, lnhabitants  of the Kaladyne  Hills  came to try their fortunes,  and  both  found  the ring to fit, the queen  made  choice  of Nura Ta and  raised  him  to theThrone, who  shortly  afterwards becoming jealous  of his brother  slew him, upon  which  Bay Bay  won, Nura  Ko's  son fled to the mountain  of Phoo BhongTong, between  Arracan  and Ava, aboutthis  period, Soo Bhoong  phoo, King of  Ava being irritated  on hearing  that the Queen  of Arracan had raised a Jhoom  to the throne, resolved  to make war upon Nura Ta, on his way to Arracan  he fill in with  Bay Bay  won who volunteered  his  aid against his Uncle,  when they  arrived  at the—Villages of Parongdying  in Arracan Bay Bay  Wom  remained  to fast and  pray for three days  and entreated  the Gods,  that if it was decreed,  he  should become  the rajah  of Arracan  and  be permitted to revenge  his father's  death, they would  send  him  three  armed boats from the invisible world; on the third day his  prayers  were  attended  to, and the war boats  appeared, but he  was instructed  first to attack the  kingof  Ava, and then march  against  his  Uncle.  Having worsted  the KingAva,  who retired  to his own  kingdom,  he advanced  towards  the capital,  Nura Ta fell sick  and  died in 392 after  a reign  of only  five years.  Bay Bay  Won held  the reign  of government  undisturbed  till the year  405 when  Nuurra  Towayza  king of Ava,  to revenge  the defeat of Soo  Bhong Phoo invaded  Aracan with a large army, and having  defeated  Bay Bay won  in a pitched  battle,  compelled  him to retire  to Phosaney  Kang,  where  he recruited  his forces  and  received  the contest, and  after  various engagements  succeeded  in recovering  the western  half  of his Kingdom,  the Burmese  holding  the eastern.During  this divided  rule, there  appear  to have been  continual  disputes which  lasted till the year 423,  when  NamongTadong,  theson of king  Theola  Chanda  who  was drowned  in returning  from China,  came from the Hills of Wybee near  Goorgenia,  where  he had been  long  secreted  with an army of Jhoom  attacked, defeated  and  killed the Burmese  Rajah;  aboutthis time  Bay  Bay Won  died, and Namong Tadong  became  Rajah,  and  held his  court  in the city of Chanbolay  till the year 438  when  he died, upon  which the minister  raised a descendant  of the ancient  rajahs  by name Kadow San  to the throne,  and  he ruled  till the year  443,  his immediate  successors  were as follows-

Chanda  Sau, Brother of the late Rajah  who reigned  till the year…………….. 449
Manik Rang  froo son of Chanda Sau……………………………………………………………459

He  was succeeded  by his son  Maha  Soorea who  reigned---till the year 462 when  his Brother Soorea, obtained  the sovereignty and  ruled till464,  and was succeeded  by his son  Poomkee  who  held  the reins of government  till the year  468  when a person named  Manik  Froogeeree  became  Rajah  and  ruled  till the year  470,  when  his minister,  Chang  Saban raised a rebellion  in the Kingdom,  and  having  put the Rajah to death assumed  the reins of government  which  he held only  for one  year, having  been  deposed  by his  own  minister  who  placed  a son of Manik  Froo  geeree  by name Maneek  Kyn Las upon  the throne,  who  ruled till the year  476  and was succeeded by Manik son 1st,  who ruled till the year 479.His successor was Manik Kala who governed  till the year  481  when Manik Phalong  1't, ascended the throne,  who  was deposed  and  put to death in 485  by his  own  minister  Sang  Khyng  who  held the government  till the year  487.About  this period two of Manik  Phalong's  sons  fled  and took refuge  with the King of Ava,  their  names ware Manik Son 2nd and  Manik Zadee, on the death of Sang Khang  they held  the government,  till the  year 492 when  Layya San  grandson of Manik  Phalong assisted  with an  army  from the King  of Ava invaded Arracan,  defeated  and  killed  Manik Zadee  and  possessing  himself of the rein of government  ruled  till the year 498, His  descendants  and successors  governed  as follows.

Leyya san till the year  ……………………………………………500.
Maha Rajgeeree  ………………………………………………….. 502.
Leyya  Myngeeree 1st ……………………………………………… 510.
Leyra  Mungtee ……………………………………………………….. 520.

When Kowaba ascended the throne and reigned till the year 530, this Rajah built  the temple  of
Mahatee and  set up in it the large  and famous idolof that  name,  he appears  to have ruled over a part of China,  the whole  of Ava, Siam,  and  Bangaland to have been  possessed  of five white Elephants, on his death,  his Son Dapa  became  King,  and  held possession of all his father's dominions till the year  542,  when  he  died  this  Prince  is stated  to have been  Lord  of 60  white  Elephants,  his successors  were as follows--. 

Anyng  who  ruled  tillthe  year …………………………………….544.
Manik  Tatukja ……………………………………………………………….549.
Myng Jokeer……………………………………………………………………551
Kyng Tha Rooboo…………………………………………………………….553

During the reign  of these princes,  china, Ava and Siam  appear  to have been  wrested  from the government  of Arraccan.  Chalung  Bafroo,  the minister taking advantage  of the imbecility  of Kyng Tha Rooboo  put him  to death  and  usurped  the government,  but the people not being  pleased  with this wicked act, openly rebelled and having  killed Chalong  Bafroo,  raised  Bajoo san  a son of Kyng Tha Rooboo to the throne,  who re-conquered  all the countries lost in the four former reigns, this  prince died in 564 and  the following were  his immediate  successors.

Nara biam Manik who  ruled till …………….566.
Taboo  Khyng………………………………………….571.
Makoo roon…………………………………………..574.
Machaung  San ……………………………………..580.
Manik Kounk  geeree  …………………………..  581.
Manik  Koonkee ……………………………………..582.
Khyngfa Laung geeree  …………………………...588.
Khynfa  Laung  Nee …………………………………..584,

This rajah  having  been  deposed  and  killed by his minister was succeeded  by his son  LeyyaMyngeeree  who  ruled till the year  589  his  successor  was Lana  Phan Froo  who  governed till the year 600,  This Rajah's 1st son  Nanajee  held the sovereignty  for the first six  months and  his 2nd son  NetaLaung for the last six  months  of the year  601- when a descendent  of the old Rajahs  by name plawaNafroo  son of Manik  Koonkee  obtained  the government  and  reigned  till the year 607.

This  princeruled extended as far as the city  of Moorshedabad which was in his possession,  his  successors  wereRajahLhokrey  who  ruled till 610. And  Chowa  Lakrey  who  ruled  till 615, and  another  son of AlawaNafroo whose  name  is not preserved held  the—reins of government  till 623, he was succeeded  by Jormer  Soorea who reigned  till the year  630, when  NynKageeree  succeeded  the throne and  ruled  till 633.  This Rajah's  government provingtyrannical  and oppressive  to the people,  they  rebelled and  put him to death  but raised  his  son  ManikPhalong  Thu 2nd to the throne and  he held  the government  till the year  637.When he  was deposedand slain by his  minister  Chamya who  succeeded  the sovereignty and  held  the rule  till the year  648,when  his subject rebelled and  having  put him  to death get ManikJy  son of Manik  Phalong  a boy ofabout 7 years old upon  the throne  who ruled till the year 746 a persist  of 98  years,  his  successorwere as follows:

Bjana  geeree  who ruled till …………….749.
Synjaway  Manik ………………………………757.

Rajah  Lao ascended the throne in 758  had his minister  Chyeer  Mien  having  stirredupa  rebellionobliged him after  one  or two successful engagements  to leave  the kingdom and occupied  thegovernment,  which  he held  till the year  750,  in the year  761the  people  of Arracan being  dissatisfiedwith Chynyaman  government  deposed  him and  brought  Rajah  Lao back  who ruled  till the year  762,and was succeeded  by his brother Chanda Lao who reigned  tillthe  year766, his  son Soomoowaywas  raised  to the throne, in the year  768,  Long  Bhaung Rajah  of Ava  throne of the Yokee, andhaving assembled  an  army invaded  Arracan,  Soomoo  way not being  able to oppose him left thekingdom  and took refuge  with the king ofHindoostan leaving  Mong  Bhoong to take quiet  possessionof the reins of Government  Soomoo  way having  ingratiated  himself with the king of Hindoostan byteaching his people  the proper  way to catch wild elephants made  bold  to solicit  his  aid  in recoveringthe throne  of Arracan.  The  king sent  one  of his minister  by name  Wali  Khan  with  an  army  for that purpose  and  he succeeded  in driving—the Burmese out of the Kingdom,  but instead of placing Soomooway upon the throne, he threw  himinto prison  and  usurped  the government  himself,  Klee  Kang, Soomooway's Brother  managed  tobribe  the officers  in whose  custody he  was, and they  both fled to the King  of Hindoostan who onhearing  what had  occurred  sent  forSadeek  Khan  the son of Walee Kaan and  ordered  him  to proceedin company  with two of his Ministers  Soo  Baba  and  Daum  Baba,  with strict instructions  to replaceSoomooway  on the throne and  put his own father  to death,  the kings  orders were duly obeyed,Soomooway  was reinstated,  and Walee Khan  decapitated  in the year  792, Soomooway removed theseat of government  from Chambalay  to the town of Arracan,  built a stone Fort  and surrounded  theTown  with a strong  wall measuring  about  nine miles, the labor  of this work must  have beenimmense  as in many  places moulds of Earth are thrown  up  to fill the spaces  between  contiguoushills,  in others the hills  are joined to each other by a mound faced  on both  sides  with stone  tookaveraging  in height from 50 to 1"00 ft. This prince  appear  to have paid  annually one lac of rupees tothe king of Hindoostan,  which  was continued  by his successorAlee Khang,  and by his  son Kala  Shamauntil the year  854,  his successor were as follows  -

Jaroo who  ruled  till the year ……….856.
Manik  Ra  Bong  for only six  months
Cha Lauk  Ka till  …………………………….863.
Manik Rajah……………………………………885
Kosa Buddee…………………………………..887
Manik Chawa  geeree ………………….. Six months.
Sha Rajtill……………………………………….893
Manik Da…………………………….…………917
His brother whose name is not preserved-  926.
Manik Phatah  …………………………………….955.
Manik Rajgeeree  ……………………………… 975
Mara  Thyn………………………………………….984
Sooree Soo  Thyn ………………………………..1000.

Moongjanee ruled only 28 days  when  he  either  died  of disease or was put to death  by his  ministerNara Buddeegeeree,  who held  the sovereignty  in the year 1007 and was succeeded  by his son SadooThyu who governed till the year to22 and was succeeded  by Chowala  Thae Chyu, it was in this reign that Soojah the brotherof Arungzabe sought refuge in Arracan and was kindly received by the Rajahwho supported  him and his followers  for five years,  notwithstanding  the Rajah's hospitality  andkindness, Soojah was not content,  and actually set up a faction  in the Kingdom.  He  repaired to thehilloftheKaladyneandhavingbeenjoinedmanymal-contentsse the Rajahatdefiance,  lO43abattle took place between  the rajah  and the Maghul  Chief,  in which the former was not onlyworsted,  but obliged to give  up claim  to Chittagong  and  Jepperah,  so long  held by his predecessors.

ln 1047 Sooree  Soo Thyue  2nd  son of the formere Rajah  ascended  the throne, but being  a man  of noability,  through  his inability  the whole  Kingdom  fall into  disorder,  he however  shortly  after died, andwas succeeded  by his  son WarraThyn who  ruled tillthe year 1054.This  prince however  did not in anyway ameliorate  the condition  of his subjects;  his immediate  successor  and  descendants  MunneeShao  and Sadoo  Wong held  the reins of government  till the year 1058. When on the death of thelatter,  Tadong  a Wuzeer became  Rajah,  but he  was deposed  the following  year by a chief namedMarapee  who only  held  the rule  for 8 months,  having  been  deposed  by a chief  named Kala Maytawho  in 1062 was expelled by Maratee  Po, and  he  again by Keojang  who  ruled till 1068, when  he wasdeposed  by Shah  Doula who  governed  till the year  1072 after  which  a chieftain  known  by the nameof the Kana  Rajah obtained  the supremacy,  and  by his  bravery,  and good management,  not only putdown allfactions in his kingdom,  but regained  the District of Chittagong,  and Jepperah,  and  ruled  tillthe year  1093, when  his son- in-law Soorea aided by a party of conspirators deposed  and slew him, and  assumed the governmentof Arracan,  but could not retain that of Japperah  and Chittagong,  he  died in 1095 and was succeededby his son Naratee  Buddee  who governed for one year  when  he was deposed by his uncle  NaraPawa  who only held  the government  during the year 1097,in 1097 his  son Oojala ascended  thethrone,  who  after ruling for six months, was killed by aMussalman  named Kala who only  ruled  for sixmonths, when he was  killed by a Mug Chieftain  named  Mamdaray  Miela of Oojala Rajah  whoreigned  tillthe year 1104 and was succeeded  by his uncle Oobhaya  who  in 1109 sent  an expeditionunder his son in law saeew  Twanja  against  Ava,  the result of which  is not recorded.
ln  1113 Aga Bakir ,the Dacca Nawab  having  been  worsted  in a contest  near to Dacca  by a chief  named  oomada  appliedto the Rajah  of Arracan  for assistance who  sent  a Sardar by name  Laya Moorang  with  1000 war  boatsto his aid, who obtained  a victory  for Aga Bakir  and  returned  to Arracan,  in 1123  Rajah  Oobhaya  diedand was succeeded  by his  son Seeree  Soo who only held the reins of government  for fortydays,when  his  brother Pooraman  assumed the Raj and  held it till 1126 in which  year he was deposedand  killed by Maha Rajh,  a chieftain  who  had married a daughter  of Rajah  oobhaya.This  Maha Rajhruled  till 1135  when  he  was deposed  and  killed by Soomana  the son of the sardar who  under Oobhayas  government  had carried an  armament  to Dacca to the assistance of Aga Bakir. soo Manaruled  till the year 1139  in which year a person named  Phooree  who was the head  Musician atArracan  went privately  to Sandoway  and  having  collected a number of men in the  jungles withwhom  he  attacked and  killed Soomana and  held the sovereignty for 40 days, after  which  he wasdeposed  and compelled to become  a Rawbe ( Priest) by Thyn  Moree  a native of Ramree who ruledtill 1144  - on his death Samada  son of his  aunt ascended the throne, but—in consequence  of his bad  government  several  attempts  were  made  to depose  him, a chief namedSyngdaway formed  a plan in concert with Saggya  Taungza  the Mau  Soogree  of Ramree to make thegovernment  of the country  over  to the Burmese. 

 Chongooza  then King of Ava  rejected their proposalon the ploy  of the unhealthiness of the climate of Araccan,  stating that  he did not wish  to exposethis army  to the pestilential  effects of that country.  After  the death of Chongooza  in the year 1145and  in Phado Phara  ascending  the throne,  Syundoway  and  his  colleague  went privately to Avaandsolicited  His  Golden  footed  Majesty  to take  Arracan  and  its dependencies  under  his protection,upon  which the King  sent  three of his sons Heinsoy  Meng, Peejay  Meng,  Tongoo Meng  with an  armyin three  divisions  to take possession of the country.The conspirator  Syngdoway  conducted  the main body into Arracan  bythe island  route,  Rajah  Samada  on hearing  of the approach of the Burmese fledand concealed  himself on the island  of Maway Dong Da  close  to Ramree leaving  the fate  of hiskingdom in the hand  of his minister  Nea Laway  who opposed  theinvaders  at the village  ofKeemabout7 cass  to the southward  of the fort of Arracan in which  he  was worsted  and  the Burmese gotpossessionofthe  country,thedivisionsandPeejayMengandTongooMengenteredtheprovinceby the route of Toungo  and Sandaway.The  Magh  Chief at Sandaway  by name Khoowarsee  offeredresistance  but not being  able  to oppose  the Burmese fled to Chata Anauk  on the Naaf where  he wasafterwards  killed.The  Sardar of Ramee  by name Lngshee  Meng  Thatalya  geree  having  also beendefeated, the Burmese gotthe possession  of the Kingdom.

ln 1146  when the government  of the Burmese  had been firmly established Raja  Samada  was seizedand  he with  his  family,jewels  and treasures and the famous image  of Goadmah  conveyed  to Ava,Nanda Bagyan  a Sardarwho had accompanied  the expedition  was made  governor  of Arracan  andanother  chief by name Nara Samagya—was put in charge of Ramree and  its dependencies  Cheduba,  Nanda  Kamanee was  made  governor  ofSandaway and the conspirator  Syngdoway  was appointed  Meo Soogree of Arracan,  and  his  colleagueSaggya  Toungza was confirmed  in his former situation  of Meo Soogree of Ramree -

Nanda Bagyan  is stated to have  been  a man  of conciliating  manners  and was much liked by thepeople.He put the Talek route into repair and settled the country.  This chief died in 1149 and wassucceeded by Auank  Phektyhuon who  ruled  till the year  1152.  During  his government,  the tyranny  ofthe Burmese  proving intolerable,  several  of the Mug  sardars  revolted,  but finding  themselvesunequal  to a contest, they  solicited  aid from the British  Government, which  was refused,  at lengthbeing driven to desperation,  they  displayed  the banner of rebellion  and  being  headed  by twoenterprising  Chiefs  Sengsheer and Champree  and  joined by a number of the Mug inhabitants,  theyassembled  at Pragyonta  Panbra near to Ooreatong on the eastern  side of the river and  advancedupon  Arracan,  which they besieged  for five weeks,  and nearly  succeeded  in taking the place, buttheir Chief Leader  Sengsheer  having  been  accidentally  shot  through  the head, the Mughs  lost  allconfidence  in themselves and  dispersed.The sardars  fled to the Company's  territories,  and the Ryatsreturned,  to their  villages.

On the arrival of Mong  Paree  a relation  of the royal  family,  Anouk Phaktyhuon returned  to Ava,Mong Paree  only ruled for one  year,  when  he died in 1153, and was succeeded  by a Chieftain named Lyngdawon. During  this Sardar's  rule,  the King of Ava  invaded  the Yoodra,  or country  of Siam,  histroops  suffering much  from the want  of provisions,  one  of the collectors of state by name  Mongreewas sent to Arracan  with  a fleet of boats  forgrain,  he was attacked at the village of Aukhur ChykwaKheon in the District of Sandoway,  by a large  party of Mugs  under three  Sardar,  Palongand  Kheoway  Byong  Myng,  who  defeated  Moongree and got possession  of the boats,  shortly  afterthis, they  prepared  to attack Arracan,  ontheir arrival at Mahateelyngda  Won advanced  to meet  them, but they had dispersed  before  hisarrival  in consequence  of being  hard pressed  by afleet of war boats  from Ramree. The  Mugh sardarsfled  into the Chittagong  district, and  their flowers  returned  quietly  to their villages.

In 1155 Syngdawon  was  recalled  and  Myngla Rajah  a relation  of the Kings  appointed  hissuccessor.During  this chief's rule  the King of Ava  sent  a large army under  Myngee Kheodong  todemand  the three Mugh Sirdars  Pulung,  Khwappok,  and  Kheoway  togong  Myng,  who had  takenrefuge  in the company's  territories, who  were delivered  up.  Polung and  Khwappok  were shut up in adark  cell and starved  to death,  KheowayTagong Myng  managed  to make  his  escape and againreturned  to Chittagong  where  he still resides .

ln 1157,  Mynghla Rajah  was recalled  and  Myngee Kheodong  appointed  his  successor.ln  1160 , Khyngberring and  his father  the Meosoogree  with several other  Sarders stirred up a rebellion  takingadvantage  of the absence of Myngee Kheodong,  who  had  been  called  upon by the King to takecommand  of the army employed  in the conquest of the Yoodra  country.  The  King  on hearing  of theinsurrection  sent  for Khyng berrings  brother Sanguaway, who was then  at Ava and after acquaintinghim with the treachery  of his father and  brother put him  to death, and ordered  Myngee Kheodongimmediately  back  to Arracan placing  under his  command 3000  chosentroops. The  Mughs  on hearingof his  approach  became  alarmed, deserted their leaders  and dispersed,  the Meosoogree and  Khyngberring with other sirdars  fled towards  Chittagong,  The  Meosoogree  falling  sick  on the way died  atthe village  of Mraosik  Kheon ( Chota Aunk ), After  this nothing  particular  occurred till the year  1173when  Khyng  Berring  with other Sardars  formed  a resolution  to attempt the expulsion of the Burmeseand  having  collected about  500  Mughs  invaded  Arracan  in 25 boats  and  landed at the village ofMoojay, the Kheonk of which  place immediately  joined  him with about 400 men.He  then proceededto Ooreatong,  attacked—the Burmese Thanah  (Guard  Post)  and  put them all to death.On information  reaching  the Rajah  ofArracan  he would not at first  believe  it.The next  day Khyng  berring arrived with a fleet of war boatsat Baboodong  Ghat where  he  was met  by the Rajah  and defeated.

After  this  Myngee Kheodongturned  every Mugh out of the Town of Arracan.  Khyng  Berring  although  worsted  in his attack  upon Arracan  had  still a considerable force  under  his command, part of which  he detached under somesteady Sardars  towards  Talak, with orders  to destroy all the village  that did not  join him. They burntMuong Khwakaw  and Talak which  created such  terror  amongst  the Mughs  that they all declared  forhim and  joined his standard and  he very shortly  overranthe  province of Arracan  and  itsdependencies.  Myngee Kheodong,  not being  able to oppose  him in the field applied all hismeans forthe protection  of the Capital.  The Cheduba  Rajah with a force of about  3000  men  attempted  toreinforce the Burmese troops but he was attacked,  by aparty of Mughs  under  Mayok  Toung  Shaynear the village  of Mollong  about  two days journey  from  Arracan,  killed and his force completelydefeated with the loss of about  1000 men,  the rest fled  into  the  jungles and escaped.  Shortly  afterthis, the governors of Ramree and Sandaway  come  to retrieve  the Burmese  Character,  and  punishthe insurgents  with a force consisting  of about 5000  men  in two hundred war boats.The  Mughswaited  for them  at the village of Khung Mewa  near to where they had defeated  the Cheduba  Rajah.

The  Mugh  fleet consisted  of 80 large  boats  under  Khyng  Berring  in person  who  attacked theBurmese with such bravery and  skill,  as completely  to defeat them  with great  loss, and following upthe advantage  got possession of Ramree, Cheduba and Sandoway,  at allof  which  places he left aconsiderable  force and then returned  to Ooreatong where  he built  a large stockade  for the receptionof his army,  and  having  completely  hemmed in Myngee  Kheodong  by a chain  of stockades  round thecapital, he sent  a Vakeel,  by name  Mahomed  Hussian  formerly Cazee and  Shabundar  of Arracan,  tothe British  governmentin Calcutta  to solicit  its countenance and  aid which were  refused. Myngee Kheodond  finding  himselfhard  pressed for provisions  and no prospect of relief  resolved  to attack the Mugh stockade  atLaungra  Taungruo  to the southward  of the fort, which  he  succeeded  in carrying out;three  daysafterwards  he attacked the MughPostat  Lagyain  ring  near to Baboodong  ghaut and was equallysuccessful, upon  which  Khyng Berring  assembled  all his forces near to Chambalay  on the bank of theKhamong about  6---- from Arracan,  where  the Burmese attacked and defeated  him with great loss, upon  which  he retreated  and shut himself  up  with the remainder  of his forces on the stockade  at Ooreutong.'About  this time  reinforcement  of 5000  men  arrived from Ava  via Rangoon in war boats.

On  their reaching  Sandaway,  they  attacked  the Mugh stockade  and  were  repulsed, upon which the commander  Lyngde  Soon, one  of the former Rajahs of Arracan  told  his Sardars if they did not carry the place next  day,  he would put them  allto  death -the following morning  at day  light they again stormed  the place,  which  had  in the meantime  been  reinforced  by a party from  Ramree, notwithstanding,  the Burmese  succeeded  in carrying  it; aftertheir  loss of Sandoway,  the Mughs  left their stockades  at Ramree and  Cheduba,  and took  to their war boats  and gave the Burmese  battle near to Kheoo Kheemo  in the Ramree  frontier  in which  they were  worsted. 

 When  Khyng  berring heard  of this disaster  he  sent all his disposable  force to their aid, who  met their defeated friends near to Mreebong, about  one  day's  journey  on this side of Talak, where they waited  the approach  of the victorious  Burmese.Another  engagement  took place in which the Mughs  were  defeated with great loss and  being  now quite disheartened  dispersed.  Khyng  berring on hearing  of the discomfiture of his forces,  fled towards  Chittagong  and took refugee  with about twenty gusty  followers  on the island of Muscalwhere he began to form  plans  for attacking  Arracan.

ln the month of Katshon(  May  ) 1174  Mug Era,  Kyhng  Berring having assembled  about  1500  Mughs  again invaded Arracan  partly  by water  with  20  war boats, the rest  of his force  marching by land  and  succeeded  in surprising  the Burmese  post  at Lawayde, where  he found  a large depot  of grain. The Rajah  of Arracan as soon as  he heard  of Khyng berring's  approach  sent  a sardar  by name  Nakhyn  bo with a detachment  of 1000  men  to oppose  him.  The  Maghsgave  him battle near to Maungdoo  and were completely  routed  and  dispersed,  Khyng berring escaping only  with  seven  followers  -The  Rajah of Arracan  supposing  that Khyngberring's  incursions  were conceived  at , assembled  a large force at Maungdoo and  sent a Vakeel  to the officer  commanding  at Chittagong  to state  that ifKhyngberring  and  his followers  were  not given  up a war  between  the Kingdom  of Ava and the British government  would  be the inevitable  consequence.

The  authorities  at Chittagoung assured the Vakeel that  Khyngberring  incursions  were  made  without  the knowledge or convenance  of the British government,  and thus the matter  terminated, but not to the satisfaction of the Rajah  of Arracan.Shortly  after  this,  Khyngberring  having  collected a number of malcontents  commenced marauding  on the plains,  and was meditating  another  attack upon  Arracan but falling  in with a British  detachment  under  Lieutenant Goung,  near to Coxes  Bazar  his party was dispersed,  he notwithstanding  very shortly  managed  to collect them  again and  invaded  Arracan  with about 40 war boats.On his arrival at the village of Majay,he was joined by the Headman and the greater part of the inhabitant.

The  Rajah  of Arracan immediately  sent  a fleet of war  boats  against  him, an engagement took place near to Majay in which the Mughs  were again worsted,  after  this defeat Khyng Berring made only one  more attempt to gain the sovereignty of Arracan,  having got together about three thousand men he took up a position—

ln the Kaladyne Mountains,  which  he  strongly stockade.The  Burmese sent  a force  against  him,  a battle took place in which  he  was defeated  with great loss,  his followers  deserted  him, and  he was up  to the greatest shifts for the means of subsistence,  after having  been  hunted  by the Burmese from one fastness to another,  and  being  quite  worn  out with watching  and fatigue,  he closed  his eventful  career  on the Mayngdong  - a mountain  near to the village  of Charkrea  in the Chittagong District.

Myngee  Khendong  having  ruled over Arracan  for 18  years,  died in the Mugh  Era 1175 and was succeeded-by  Myngee Maha Noratha,  father in law of the former  King of Ava.The only extra ordinary event during his rule is the purchase  of a very large Diamond  in Calcutta  for the King through  the agency of Soojah Cazee. After having  held  the government  for five years,  he  was recalled  and Myngee Maha Khoodong  appointed  his  successor,  who took charge of his  office  in 1181.  Nothing particular  occurred during  his  government  excepting  the exportation  of a large  quantity  of rice to Rangoon  for the use of the Burmese  army  then  engaged  in a war with the Yoodra People.This  Rajah was recalled  in 1183  and  Myngee Maha Kheojawah  Teersawyn  was appointed  his  successor.

ln  1185 Mugh Era during the month  of Toutha Long  corresponding with august !823,  a person named Kongzahkag  - Kheouk  of the village of Majay, having oppressed  the Ryats, they complained against him  to the Rajah,  who  decided in their favor,  in consequence  of which, the Kheouk  left the province and fled  into the Chittagong district,  turned corn dealer  and  set the Rajah  at defiance.  The acherung at Maungdoo by nameMuay was ordered  by the Rajah to establish  a Chokey at Shapooree  for thepurpose  of seizing Koungjakkay.Whilst navigating  the Naaf, one  day  his boat happened  to pass ladenwith  rice,  Muay  called  out to him, "stop" telling him  that a Chokey  had been  established by the Burmese and that each boat  passing must pay 2 rupees,  Koung  jokkay  replied,"shapooree--' belongs to the company,  you  have no right to establish  a Chokey on it, and  I will not allow you  to search my  boat" upon  which  Muay's people  fired into the boat and  Kaungjakkay  was killed.  

The boatmen  immediately  pulled over  to the Chittagoung  side, and  reported  the circumstance  to the Thanadar  at Teek Naaf ( by name  Tarhy  Ram)  who  brought the affair to the notice of the Magistrate Mr. Lee Warner, who  sent  a party of Sepoys  to take possession of the island  of Shappooree.  This was immediately  made  known to the Rajah  of Arracan  who  after  some  deliberation  sent  a Detachment of 500 men undertwo  sardars  by names Chickaydo  Manea  Bulla  Noratha, and  Nakhando,  to retake it, which they did, and this originated  the war.  Previous however to resorting to open hostilities negotiations were attempted by the British government to settle the differences and define the frontier  of the two states but in vain.Shortly after the declaration  of the war the Burmese  entered our provinces  in force,  and  cut up a Detachment at Ramoo, under Captain  Nroton,  where  theystockade  themselves, but as  soon  as Sir  A Campbell  took Rangoon they were  recalled  for the defense  of Pegue.

Mr. Robertson's  settlement  of the province  of Arracan  and its dependencies.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Rala -1
Sheikh Junoo,  a Mussalman  of the province of Arracan
This man has been  for upwards of a twelve month past  attached  to the Artillery as head man  of the  coolies required  in the Magazine;  he is a relation of Sooja  Kazee  and  formerly lived in his village, but having  sided  with Khyng Berring was obliged to seek refuge at Har Bang  in the  Chittagong District.
Phagdas  -2
Chyula  Po- A Ramoo  Mug
This person is one of the  zumeendars  of Teek  Naaf  and a descendant of a man who  was formerly  a Minister of state under the old Mug government.
Pay  Reme -3
Yan  Keon  - 4
Wyngeeree-  an  Arracan Mug
This man,a brother in law of Khyng berring,  in well known  as  one of the most intelligent of his  tribe,  he accompanied this  office  as an interpreter and has rendered  greater  service  to the army  than any  other  individual

Soongaydo  Keu  - 5
Choray - an  Arracan Mug

Mading Meade  - 6
Mungla  -A Ramoo  Mug
A Doobashee  attached  to Mug  Levy

Peedyng  Keon  -7
Tablagyne-aRamoo Mug

Rungwa  Keon  -8
Keojee-A RamooMug
This person  was  appointed  at the request of the  former  Kheouk  and the  inhabitants of the village.

Oung  Keon  - 9
Shaway  oo - A Ramoo  Mug
A nephew  of Khyng Berring  by the Mother's side

Kanggya  Shaug  - 10
Oonngyojan-a Ramoo Mug
A nephew  of Khyngberring

Pajarmfray Keon  - 11
Maungborng-a  Ramoo  Mug

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Maha Monee Chuk 12

Loolongbee  Keon  13
Napeeaygee  - Arracan Mug
Former Kheouk  appointed  at the  request
of the  inhabitants

Layyaming  Keon 14
Thaway  Chan  - a Ramoo  Mug
Jemadar  in the Mug levy

Prongbya  Keoh  15
Phasanay  - Ramoo  Mug
Jemadar  in the Mug  levy
Khyong  Pheda16
Raphasay -a Ramoo  Mug

Chyng Khrang  17
Mung  Froo  - a Ramoo  Mug

Koola  Boom  18

Ooreatong  19
Wyngeeree  - an  Arraacan Mugh
A brother in law of the late Khyngberring
Mrojag  20
Choreepo-a  Ramoo  Mug
At present  employed  with the Commissariat

Meeneay Long 21
Lal  Mohammed  and Alle

The  former thanadars  of Arracan
Rasseedong  22
Jonying  Oung
Son of Hynja  and  a lineal descendant of the  old  Mug princes.

Namroosay  Khyun  23

All relations  and Ramoo  Mughs

Chitoway 24
Mr. Jas  Fernandez--a  native of Portugal

This division  is commonly  called  the island  of Akyab situated  at the mouth of the  Ooreatong  river,  it contains  19 Hamlets  or Paras  and is conformed  upon Mr. Fernandez as a reward  for  his indefatigable  and zealous  services.

Meeoom  Keon 25
Sawoo-  A Cheduba  Mug
This man was  Kheouk  during the Burmese  rule

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Punay  Khyong  26
lbrahim - an Araracan Mussalman
This man is an old inhabitant  of the village and rendered
considerable  service  to the army in its advance,  he has  since  been appointed by captain  Drummond
asst. 2 Wn.  Genl.  to the Head of the lntelligence  Dept.  and has been  invested  with the  charge  of this village as a reward  for past and an incentive  to future

Paleng  dong Keon 27
This man  was  Kheouk  of this
division  during  the Burmah
(Burmese) rule.

Angkara  Khyng 28
Mongshing-a  Ramoo  Mug
This man  was very active in
furnishing  coolies  at the
commencement  of the  campaign,

Mree boom  Keon 29
Ongaree  - an  Arracan Mug
This  man  was  Kheouk  of the
division  during  the Burmah rule,

Nawa  Kwagya 30
Lay  Thounanabra  31.
Nasharyng  Keon 32

Acherung Dongay - a remigrant Mug

ln selecting  Acherung for  the
charge  of these  villages, reference has been made not only to his general conduct  which  has  always been  excellent  and his hereditary
rights but also to the circumstance of its being particularly  desirable to entrust  the  superintendence  of the  frontier  to a man who is personally obnoxious  to the
Burmese and will therefore be stimulated to activity by his personal apprehensions as well as private interests.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Krakchan  33
Tingrabo  - an  Arracan Mug
This man  is son in law to the  lateKhyng Berring and  of all the Mugsardars displayed the greatestpersonal activity  throughout theadvance  to Arracan, especiallyduring  the passage  of the troopsfrom  Mayoo  Mowa  to Keoway
Kyandong,  he bear  a high
character for  bravery amongsthistribe  having  once  with  a smallparty  cut  his  way  through  anumber of Burmese  war boats.Elephants  abound  on his lands andhe has offered  to catch  anynumber  the  government  mayrequire
Kaysala  34
Rahphaway  - a remigrant  Mugh from Ramoo.

Keingaslay  Anouk 35
Tong  Phakeon36.
Konglong  Chambalay 37

Sheikh,Soojah Kazee  -An  Arracan  Mussalman

This individualwhose  name  mustbe  familiar  to government  isregarded  at the chief of all theMussalman in Arracan, under the
Burmese  he  held by a tenure
somewhat similar to that  of aJageerdar  in Hindoostan  nearly one third  ofthe province. Such  asovereignty it  would have  been impolite and unjust to allow  him to
retain,  but  it was  at the same time expedient  to prevent  his  feeling being  hurt at the  change  of ruler,
and therefore an extensive and fertile portion of the District  has been left under  his  charge.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Prajogee  Keon 38
Oong  Phouny  - a remigrant  Mugh from  Ramoo.

This man is son  in law  of the late Khyng Berring

Wong Keon 39
 Mongfroo  - a remigrant  Mug from Chuckreea
This  man is one of the wealthiest and most  respectable  man  of his tribe  and has on  every  occasion furnished  with  charity  the  quota required of him.

Jongrung  Keon  40
Gogee  - an  Arracan Mug
This  man  was  a subadar in the Mugh  Levy  was the first sardar  with his dependents  that entered  the corps, his  conduct  is represented by Captain Dickenson  as having
been uniformly praise worthy.

Pragyon 41
Phasanay  - a remigrant  Mug  from Ramoo

Employed in the guide and
intelligence department.

Thoonayso  Keon  42
Baee  and Mungnea  - Remigrant mughs  from  Ramoo.

Pade  Keon  43
Kyasee  - a remigrant  Mugh from Ramoo

Jeejo  Keon  44
Shurrafuddowa  - a Ramoo  Mugh
Acting  Nazir  of the Court
Neongyo  Keon  45
Achyang  - a remigrant  Mugh from Cox's Bazar

This man was  employed  in the Flotilla and afterwards  under the Execution Engineer  in building  the barracks,  he is industrious, activeand  intelligent.

Kreybeng  Keon  46
Khay Kyne  - an  Emigrant Mugh from  Ramoo

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Loungra  ashay  anouk 47.
Todyee  lay  mabhek

Sheikh  Soojah-  Acherung,  - an Arracan  Mussalman
This man  is a distant  collateral relation of Soojah  Kazee  and  is a person  of considerable  influence
amongst the Mussalman of the province,  during the Burmese  rule he  was  entrusted  with the Management  of a large Division  of the province,  his  father is at Umrapoorah  where  he holds  a situation in the King's  household'
These  circumstances  have
rendered  his profession to the British government  obnoxious to suspicion  which  however,  his conduct  has not on  the whole afforded  any sufficient reason  for regarding as well-founded, he is a man of intelligence  and Possessed of great information  relative  to the
province  and the Burmese  Empire in general; he has resided at the capitals of both  states  and is better  acquainted  with their respective  powers  and resources than  any other Person  in the province.

Konfray  Keon  48
Ameer  Allee, a remigrant
Mussulman  from  Cox's  Bazar where he was from  some  time employed  in the subsidiary  Police establishment

This person  was  interpreter  to Brigadier Gen.  Morrison.  The village was  held under the Burmese  by Soojah  Acherung who voluntarily  resigned  it to the present occupant.

Tongdyngdung  Khyong  49
Soojah  Acherung  and Ameer Ali
This village is divided  between the two Kheonks.

Rokpungpo  Klay  50
Paniarunja  - a remigrant  Mug
This man is now a sub-sardar on the Mugh  Levy

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Gungkeon  51
Mong  Long Pray  - a Burmah  and the Mroosogree  of Arracan
This  man had resided  in Arracan for upwards  of 30 years  the greater  part  of which  period  he held  the  situation of Mroosoogree,
as the  village contained  a favorite garden he applied for a grant which was given  to him, his information regarding the internal details of the province is more copious and minute  than  that which any other person has furnished.

Pooreng  Keon or Baloee  Para

Mohamed Haneef  allas Bong
Naproo  - an Arracan  Mussalman

This  man has been head  of this village for the last 30 years  he  was a Sardar  under the Burmese  but joined our camp  between  the 29thMarch- 21st of April 1825.

Pongdonp  53
Hassan Allee- an  Arracan

This man was sword bearer to the Rajah of Arracan it was at this village the army encamped on the 29th March.

Mong Choway  Keon  54
Shawayoo Alias  sheik Omr  Khutob - An  Arracan

This man  was  employed  by the Burmese  as  Acherang he is now an interpreter  in the police court

Bong  do wut  55
Meer Mohamed  Ally Alias MongLa -an  Arracan  Mussalman

This man at various times  held responsible situation under the Burmese  government,  he  was
attached  latterly to the King  of Ava's Raja  Gooroo's  suite but having  been ill treated by the Gooroo  he  left him was
entertained as an interpreter  in the police, He  is intelligent and possesses  a fund  of information and has  always  conducted  himself much  to the  satisfaction  of the Sub

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

                     Ramree Name  of

the Mroosoogree 

Moom    1

This man  was appointed  by Coll. Murray  with the  concurrence  of the major  part  of the  inhabitants,

lnggoo  or low Island  2

Chyla  Po
Chyla  Po is a very active man  sent from this  office  to Coll.  Murray  as an  interpreter

Ryne  Brey Mee  3

This Sardar  was appointed  at the recommendation  of the inhabitants by Coll.  Murray.

Koow  Khyong  4

Nala  Froo
Chaunay  aung

This first of their Sardars was
appointed by  Coll.  Murray.  The second  is his brother who  has returned  from Chittagong.

Laydong  5

This man has  recently  returned from  Ramoo  where  he had  resided from  13 years,  he was  placed  at
the head  of the village by  Lieutt. Coll.  Murray.

Kandyng   6

Gong Bhong
This Sardar  was elected  by the villagers and  appointed  by  Lieutt. Coll.  Murray

Kyn Yowa  7

Na Po Fray
This Sardar  was also elected  by the villagers and appointed  by Coll.Murray
Kanggo  8
Morapo,  Soobadar  of the Mug Levy

This one of the most active Sardar in the Levy, he was wounded  on the morning  of the  29th March at Arracan.

You  Theet  9
This man is the  son of the former Sardar  of the village and has recently  remigrated  from  Harng  in Chittagong

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Yowa  bolay  Kheong  bya  10
Showay  Phoa
This Sardar  was  elected  by  the villagers and appointed  by  Lieutt. Coll.  Murray

AIay Khoong  11
A remigrant  Mugh from  Beebee Kheel  near  Chakrera  and  formerly Head of the village
Ganabok  12
A remigrant  Mugh,  Brother  of the person appointment by  Lieutt. Coll.  Murray  on  the  election  of the people, with whose consent he has been constituted Sardar.

Meong byngla  13
This Sardar elected  by the people and appointed  by  Lieutt. Coll. Murray
Than Tong 14.
Myng  Yat  15.

Than Toungja
This and the following villages have  been placed under the charge  of the brother of Hynjas, who  derives his name  from that  of the  first of the three division  of which  he acted  as head  man until the year  1812,  when  in consequence  of Kheng berring invasion he was obliged to emigrate
Than  Kheong  16

Keouk Pew  17
This Sardar  was elected  by the villagers and appointed  by  Lt.  Coll. Murray

Mroo Kheong
Na Polong
Do. Do.

Maday Khyngo
Nayoo Proo
Do. Do

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Murag  Lyng  20
Keonk  to Ayng 21

Kion  Khngne
Keonja  Oong &
The first of these  Sardars  is the person elected  by the villagers and appointed by Lieutt.  Coll.  Murray the  2nd  is the  man  sent to Arracan
on  suspicion of his having  been concerned  in concealing property belonging to the Burmah Rajah, the charge  not  having been substantiated  and he being  a
person possessed of influence
such  as may  materially  contribute to the  accomplishment  of various
objects  it has been considered
advisable  to unite him with  his relation in the superintendence  ofthe village.

Kouen  Kheong 22
Oounggya  Jyne
This Sardar  was appointed  to the charge  by this office  on condition of his  conveying  the dawk to Prome  this man  is a brother of Hynja

Lyng  Kheong 23
Thyn nee aung
Elected  by the villagers and
appointed by Lieutt.Coll. Murray

Keonk  Noe Wa  24
UbidulKareem&  Napfroo
This is the only  Mussalman  in the village, of the  Sirdars the first was appointed by  Lieutt. Coll.  Murray the second  has been  associated with  him at the  request  of the villagers.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

     Town of Ramree  is divided 

into five  Mahellas  as  follows

Tan Kaman  1

ln thls Mahilla there  are  twenty Burmese, thirty Musslaman  and two hundred Mugh  house holders,  it was  formerly  chiefly peopled by Mussalman  and on that account  is now placed under
the  charge  of a person that  tribe.

Shaway  Dong breng  2
Su ngnee

These three  Mahillas contain  460 houses  of which  about  200  are occupied  by Burmese  old  residents
of the place  & married  to Mughwomen,  these Mahillahs  are  under
charge  of an officer  called  the Layragong,  whose named is Charry Po.

Sayagong Breng  3

Aung  hirk  4

Mroodong 5

This Mahallah  is no longer in
existence  the  great stockade
having been  erected  on its site.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

This province of Sandoway  is under  Nathoo  Mroosoogee  appointed  by Lieutt. Wyndham  and continued  in his office  under  the guardianship  of his maternal  uncle  Jophio.Thls  boy's parents were Burmese,  his  father held the situation  of Mroosoogree  for 6 year previous to the  expulsion of the Burmese  of whose government  he was a public  functionary and not  as it is erroneously  supposed  a Mug  Rajah  since the Father's death the mother  has  married  Oonggyo  Jyne  the  Soogree  of 14 the general charge  of divisions  No.-3-9-8-13-16-12&17
has  been  under the appellation  of Khong  Keon Soogree  conferred  upon a man  Oaong  Byng  Son of a remigrant Mug named Ramada  who 25  years  ago was Mroosoogree  of the  province,  he accompanied  the  army to Arracan  at theHead of a party  of Boat  men raised  by him for public service

Mroo Ma  1
Napo_  a Burmah
This man  was appointed  by  Lieutt Wyndham.  This divlsion  includes the  town and  stockade.

Laya  Rawa  2
Natoway  and Malongway  Mugs
Of these  men  the  first is the
person appointed  by  Lieutt.
Wyndham  the second associated with him is a relation  who has recently  returned  from  Beebee
Kheel or Chittagong.

Choway  Rawa  3
Mragyo  Oo _a Mugh
This Sardar  was appointed  by Lieutt.  Wyndham.

Syndaway  Khrong  4
Sy  Mra  Noo ----- Burmah
Do. Do.
Pantha  Khrong 5
Ourhla  / Rainoo
Of these  two the  first appointed  by Lieutt.  Wyndham  the  2nd is his
relation lately  returned  from

Padong Kheong  6
Malingda,  Mugh sabadar  of the Mugh  levy

As the person appointed  is
necessarily  detained  with his
regiment  his brother named
Namia will manage  the village.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Saungraway  Kheong 7
Phosanay - Jemadar  of the Mug levy

This man name  has been recorded with the  consent of the man appointed  by  Liutt. Wyndham, Prasanay's  brother in law, Keo Jyne  Proo will  manage  the  affairs of the village.

Tonggo  Kheong 8
Sa,  Oo  -a Burmah
Appointed by  Lieutt. Wynd  ham
Kheongya  Ruwa 9
Na Khyeng -Mug
Do. Do
Alaygra  Rawa  10
Na Sa Oo-Burmah
Do. Do
Maee  Chunay  11

La mo KheonC  12
Oong Janyng - Mug
This  man  is a remigrant  Mugh from Sherbong  in Chittagong where  he furnished  considerable
number  of boat  men  for  the public service.

Rant  Kheong 13
Shaway - Mug
Appointed by  Lieutt. Wynd  ham
Cha  Rawa 14

Oounggyo  Jyne Appointed  from this office  and
exempted  from furnishing  coolies on condition of keeping up  a Dak communication  between  the two division  of the  army
Laya  Rawa 15.
Na Proo  Bong - a Mug
This man  was appointed  by  Lieutt Wyndham

Chabring  thana  rawa  16
Khay Loway - Mug
Appointed  by  Lieutt.  Wynd  ham
Beng  Kheong  17
Appointed  at Arracan from  this office.

Name  of the village  Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division

Province of Macon or Mekha waddy commonly  called  Cheduba this Sardar  was appointed  by  Brigadie,  Mac Creagh. He as a general  charge  of the  whore province  but moreimmediately  of the following villages_

Limboo  Rawa  l.
Keo Jawa & Romasee

About  one half of the House are occupied  by Burmese  This is the Sardar  village and  where  the stockade is
Jay Pa  Rawa  2
Kra  ounghee
The whole lsland  of Cheduba  is regarded-

Mongchay Rawa  3

 was  but  one  village division  and its sub-divisions as paras  or Hamlets. The soogrees  or Kheonks  are all the  same  men as  were  on  the first
occupation  of the island  continued or appointed  by the Moosoogree nominated  by  Brigadier Mac Creagh
Mong Ray Rawa  4
Khome  Bray Mug

Ka Raw Rawa  5
Thingne Ma  Oo

Name  of the village Division
Kheouk or Headman appointed to the charge  of Division
The following  villages  are under  the  immediate  charge  of a man named pheoown,  who  formerly held an officein the  province, but  emigrated  after Khyngberring's failure in 1812 and returned  with the army in the  capacityof a superintendent  of a party  of coolies  and Boat  man  raised  by himself for the public service.  this office  is to that of Narawasoogree or superintendent  of five village, his  quotas to be furnished  through  the Mroosoogree
Towa  thoo Rawa  6
Mra Nee

Keemoo Rawa 7
Oung Thoway

Mungbrung Rawa 8
Mrajyo Oo

Chalay Prang Rawa
Chaunay  Oung

The population  of Arracan  and its dependencies  Ramree,  Cheduba & Sandaway does not at present  exceed 100,00 souls, may be classed  as follow—
- Mughs six tenths
-  Mussalman  three  tenths  Total 100,000 Souls
-  Burmese One tenth

The Muisalaman Sardars  generally  speak  good Hindoostanee,  but the lower orders of that class,  who speak  a broken sort of Hindoostanee,  are quite  unintelligible  to those who are not thoroughly  acquainted with the jargon of the southern  parts  of the Chittagong  District. The universal Language of the provinces isthe Mugh,  which although  differing  in some respects from  the Burmah,  particularly  in pronunciation,  is written  and spelt in the same way and  with the same character; almost everyone  is able  to write  and as females  are not precluded from receiving  instruction,  they  are  often shrewd  and intelligent.  The Mugs, beingparticularly fond of hunting and fishing, do not make such good farmers as the Mussalman.
However  as Bunneahs and shop  keepers they surpass  the Bengollee  in cunning  and on all occasion try, and  very often successfully, to overreach  their customers; stealing  is a predominant evil amongst  them, yet they  are not given to lying, when  detected  after the commission of any  felonious  act,  however serious,  they almost invariably, and with the utmost frankness  confess the crime,  and detail with the greatest minuteness  the manner  in which it had been  perpetrated. 

Customs in Marriage

The Burmese follow the example  of European  Nations,  and court their wives  after the consent  of the parents has been obtained;  a day is fixed forthe wedding,  and all the relations and  friends of the parties invited to a festival in the Brides  father's house,  after thepreliminaries of the dowry  have been settled,  the whole  set down to the feast,  the bride  groom and bride eat out of- the same  dish, which  binds the contract  and  they are declared  to be man  and  wife,  when the son-in -law becomes  a member of the family till his wife shyness  has  worn off and she wish to have  a house of her own, the Mughs go through  the same ceremony  with the exception  of not having the pleasure  of courting. 

The young  folks are not allowed to think of marriage  unless  the match be arranged  by the parents. Should  the Husband wish  to separate  from his wife against her will, and  inclination,  he must give up all the property  and  take upon him all her debts,  and quit the house with nothing on but his Dholie,  but should  the wife  wish  for a divorce,  she has  only to  summon her Husband before  the Magistrate  and  tender  to him 25 Rupee,  which by their  law, he must accept, and the release is effected  by the wife breaking  a Pan leaf in two, eating one half herself  and giving the other to her husband,  should  they  have  any children they  are divided according  to their sexes  the father obtaining  the boys, and  the mother  the girls. Should  man and  wife separate  by mutualconsent the property  is equally  divided and  that are at liberty  to remarry.


Amongst  the Burmese  and Mugh slavery  is tolerated in all shapes.  Slaves bought from  the Khongs or Hill people  cannot redeem  themselves  by money  without  the consent  of the owner.  Every other species  of slave has to the privilege  of ransom It is a common custom amongst  the lower orders  when a man wants money  to pawn  his wife  for a certain period or untilthe  debt  be liquidated.  Should the woman  become pregnant  whilst  in pawn  the debt is rendered null and  void and  the husband  can reclaim his wife if he chooses,  takesthe  child also,  and a fine 60 rupee  from  the father.  Such  practices are shockingtothe  civilized  mind, butthe  barbarous  and dissolute habits  of these people resonated  them all sort of prostitution  and  vices,  a woman  loses  nothing  of reputation by the frequent  change of her husband  and is as- much  respected  by the community  generally  as those who continue  constant.
The Burmese  and  Mugh  women  having equal  liberty  with their  Lords  and Masters  are  fond of dress  and appearing  in public,  the dress  worn  by the women  consists of a red binder wrapt  tightly  round the bosom,  over  which a robe  coming  down  as far as the knee,  the lower garment or what ought to be a petticoat  is an oblong piece of cloth only  sufficiently wide to meet and  fasten on one  side  of the waist so that every step  a fashionable  female takes, exposes  one limb completely,  they  are however not backward  in showing  their shapes  and  well-formed persons to the best advantage,  always taking care to conceal  as much  as possible the appearance  of the feet.

Funeral Ceremonies

The Mughs  have no prescribed  form for disposing of the dead. Some burn the bodies others bury them, the coffin  of the wealthy  are richly  gilt, and made  in the shape of a sarcophagus. The priests and men in power  are generally  embalmed, and  their  bodies  preserved  for many years.  The method  of cleaning  the intestine  is by quicksilver.  Music and dancing take place at the funerals of those whose  friends can  afford to pay for the entertainment, and although the people  are by their  Shasters  prohibited  from  the use of liquor  on any occasion, it often happens,  that a funeral  is the sense  of dissipation  and riot.
The musicians are all registered and placed under a Sardar  styled by the Rajah Sangeed Laway,  and no one  can procure a set without  an application to him,  who  charges according to the number of instruments,  the Sangeeds  Laway  pays a considerable  sum annually  to the Rajah  for this privilege  -
lmport and export  duties

The  custom  house was at Arracan  which  had five detached  chokies  established  at the following  places,  one at Rala one  at Peekheon, one at Ooreatong  one  at Mongbra  and another at Limroo  kheon.  When boats or vessels arrived at Ooreatong  which was the chief Chokey  and not farmed  out, the Durogah  often— taking an inventory  ofthe cargo,  put a peon on board  to conduct  the vessel to the custom house,  where  duties  were  levied  in kind  at the rate of 10 percent, unless a pecuniary arrangement had been  entered  into, which was not an uncommon custom, all the other chokies were leased  out yearly, but the rent  paid every six months  -the revenue  realized from import and export  duties may be averaged at 50,000  per annum.


There were  five public  ferries in the province,  on at Teek Naaf  one at Chukadong,  alias Baboodong  Ghat  Lengrak  kado, one  at Mongboway and one  at Radong  Myongbong Kado, which were allfarmed  out-The revenue  derived from  the Ferries  amounted to about  ln. Rupees 400 per annum-The L7 large Nullahs viz the Kalaydyne; Ooskalyng, Namado,  Belyn Kheon, Meekheon, Zemma  Kheon,  Yan Kheon, Anouk  Yoo Kheon, lraidan Kheon, Mosay  Kheon, Limroo Kheon, Pymarung  Kheon,  Ashay Limroo Kheon, lrraway Kheon,  Jong  Kheon,  Talet Kheon and Yononaway  Kheon were also farmed  out with the privilege  of a monopoly  of all feeswas timber,  tobacco,  cotton and bamboos  grown on the hills and also  of the Poojoung  a sort of twilled cloth  made  bythe hill people and much prized  bythe inhabitantsof  the plains. The revenue  derived from this source  averaged at about  ln.Rs.-8,000 per annum  -,


The mint was in Arracan  and any person  was allowed  to take bullion to it, for the purpose  of being coined  paying 5 percent to the state;  the process  of coining  was very  tedious, the silver  after  being  melted was cut into  small  pieces  then weighed and beat  out to the proper size,  the coin was then placed  between two dyes  and with  a few strokes  of a heavy hammer the impression  was effected, when the whole of the establishment was employed  they could  with difficulty make two thousand  rupees per day. –

Land Revenue

It appears,  that  the only land  assessed, was that on which sugar  canes,  hemp, indigo, onions, garlic and  turmeric are grown, the annual tax upon a piece of land 150ft square  sown with sugar  cane  or indigo  two rupees  and one rupee  for hemp  on the same measurement. Onion, garlic  and  turmeric on a strip  of ground 150  long  by 3 ft wide  paid  eight annas; revenue  on the produce  generally  was levied  at one  uniform  rate  throughout the kingdom, every  plough  drawn  by buffaloes  was assessed at 10 tayngs  equal to 2 1/2 Arries  or 36 seers=14 Manuds  16 seers  but ploughs  drawn by bullocks  paid only 10 tayngs  annually .


For the privilege  of using or fishing in the tanks  or fresh  water lakes,  two rupees were annually  exacted from every  30 houses; nets used  in the rivers were assessed according to their size, averaging from two to ten rupees each  per annum,  where  stakes  were  used,  thetaxation  was regulated accordingto  the nature of the bank and  the distance  stated in, the revenue  derived  from the fisheries  amounted to about  2000 rupees  annually. 


Teak timber is to be had in the hills at the source of the Kaladyne  and Mraisay  river but the difficulty in bringing it down  to the plains so much enhances  the price, that it is found a cheaper  plan  to import  it from Rangoon and Laymeana  in the district of Bassein-The garjantree called  Kanyeng red larracel  and  Toon  abound  in the banks of the Naaf and Mayoo, near  the foot  of the Mountains. -The pine  apples and  plantains  of these provinces  are perhaps the finest flavored  in the world,  and procurable  in the greatest abundance,  mangoes,jack fruit,  sweet Limes  and coconut are also  abundant  but oranges- are scarce' Bangans,  red pepper, cucumbers,  water melons,  papas,  and  rutaloo  are very plentiful. 

Sugar cane  grows most luxuriantly  and if cultivated to any  great extent  would produce  aconsiderable  revenue  to government.  _

The indigo  plants  is as rich  and flourishing  as any in Bengal,  but the art of manufacturing  it,is unknown  to the inhabitants,  and consequentlythe  cultivation  of the plant  is almostentirely  neglected,  oilfrom  the tel plant  is produced in considerable  quantities  in the plainsbut mustard  seed  oil, cotton and  tobacco are cultivated  on the banks of the hill streams.

The staple articles of the province are rice and salt in plentiful seasons.  Dhan used  to sell for three Mug  rupees the 100 Arrees  = 30 Maunds  and  the latter  from  15 to 18Arrees.

The  cultivation  of rice  may be carried on to any extent,  and as the population  increase willbe extended  and send not only  to render  the climate and country  more healthy but bybecoming  an article of great  trade  will increase  the revenue  considerably.  _

Black peeper  grains wild at Aung  and Sandoway,  if cultivated  might  become  an article oftrade  and  yield a handsome  revenue  to government, Limestone  is to be had in abundance  on the island of Ramree, cheduba, and  Jaygoo  and asthe soil of country  answers for brick making, there  will no difficulty in introducin[  Ruckhabuildings  into these provinces;  during  the rule of the Mughs  and Burmese,no one was allowed  to build brick  or stone houses;  those materials using appropriated  solely for theconstruction  of their temples  and  the repair of fortifications, all the house are of wood,  andno sardar could build one that did not correspond  with his rank, the plan  of which  being inthe first instance submitted-for the approval  ofthe princes.

Gold and  Silver dust are found  in the Nallahs  at Bassein, allthose  employed in gathering the precious  metals  pay each 12 rupees  in gold for the privilege,  no one  is allowed to collect  the dust without  a Purwanah  from  the King  - The process  is managed  by a tray  about ½  an inch deep which is filled with  sound,  and  taken into the stream  where the sand is moved aboutand carried  away by the water,  the metals  remaining at the bottom.

The soil of Cheduba is well adapted  for the cultivation  of cotton  which  may be introduced with advantage.  Sandoway  Aung and various  parts  of the province  of Arracan  appear favorable  for the cultivation  of coffee, and I would recommend  the immediate  introduction of the plant into these provinces,  the land  holder are  very  desirous  to improve  and add  to the productions of the country,  and ought to meet  with  every encouragement, if a nursery on a small scale,  under an experienced  superintendent  was established  to rear the coffee plant, I have  no doubt  the experiment  would  prove  successful, and might  be made  at a very trifling  expense  to the government  .

Peace  having been concluded  with the court of Ava  and  the British  government,  it appears to me that a very  considerable reduction  of the military  force in these provinces  might withadvantage  be immediately  affected. The European  Regiment  at Cheduba is not any longer required and at present maintained  at an enormous  expense. The following Military and naval establishment will in my opinion  be quite  sufficient  for the protection  of Arracan  and its dependencies.

Two Regiments  of Native lnfantry
One company  of European Artillery
Four  Companies  of Pioneers.
The Mug  levy completed  to 600 muskets
The provincial  corps to 500 muskets—
One armed Brig
12 Gun Boats
50 flats
Disposition of the Force
Head  Quarters  Akhyab
1-Regiment  of Native lnfantry
Artillery Detachment-Pioneers Ditta

Amherst  lsland
1- Regiment  Native lnfantry
1- Brigade of pprs.
To detach two companies  to Sandoway and a Jemadar  party to Cheduba for the purpose  of countenancing police.

The duty of Ramree, and  the province  of Arracan  generally,  to be taken  jointly by the Mugh Levy and the provincial Corps, so that the regular  troops  would always be available  for services.
The flotilla ought to be placed entirely under  the control  of the office commandingthe South  Eastern Division,  who would  them,  at all times and at all seasons  be enabled  to provide for any emergency,  and  when  police Thannahs  have been established  at Cheduba, Sandoway, Aeng and  Talak the arrangement  will be perfect complete.
The whole  country  as I said before being Sunderbun  from the bottom of the Mountains, to the sea, marching  is out of the question and consequently a few elephants  and as many  bullocks  as might be requisite for the guns,  would be the only cattle required,  a portion of the flatswhen  not wanted for the transport of troops and stores  might with  advantage  be employed under  the Salt Agent  for the conveyance  of salt from  the different villages  to the golas  and from  the golas to the vessels on which the salt  might  be shipped  for Calcutta. _

Arracan  and its dependencies  having been  much  harassed  for the last  two years,  the cultivation  of the soil has been greatly neglected,  and as no survey of the country  has yet been made,  it is impossible  at present  to make a correct  assessment, I would however respectfully  recommend that a settlement  be made with the land  holders for five years  they paying  nonrevenue  for the first year,  but after  the expiration  of that  period  to pay a moiety  of the assessment  that may be fixed  upon, half yearly import and export  duties however ought  to be levied  as soon  as the rate shall have been determined  by the government.

The land revenue of Arrancan and its dependencies--for the first five years may be estimated at 150,000 rupees  per Annum.
lmport and export  duties @ ---------------50,000
Court fees and fines @..........................  20,000
Total l.R.P  ………………………………………---220,000  Per annum.

Exclusive  of what may be derived  from  the manufacture of salt  and sale of opium,--after the topographical  survey of the country  has been completed,  which might certainly  be effected  in five years, during  which  period  the population  under our government  would rapidly increase  and  as the soil of the country  is peculiarly  fertile and productive, the revenue  after the lapse  of the first settlement might I have every reason  to suppose,  be enhanced  three fold.
Sub commissioner's office
Akhyab  26th   April 1826.
I have  the honor to be

Your  most  obt. Servant
Sub commissioner